British Cameroons (1916–61) and French Cameroun (1916–60)
In World War I British, French, and Belgian troops drove the Germans into exile, beginning a period of British rule in two small portions and French rule in the remainder of the territory. These League of Nations mandates (later United Nations [UN] trusts) were referred to as French Cameroun and British Cameroons.
The British trust territory consisted of a strip of land bisected by the Benue River along the eastern border of Nigeria. British rule was a period of neglect, and this, coupled with the influx of numerous Nigerians, caused great resentment.
The old German plantations were eventually united into a single parastatal (government-owned enterprise), the Cameroon Development Corporation, and were the mainstay of the economy. Development also occurred in agriculture, especially in the latter years of British rule. The production of cacao, coffee, and bananas grew rapidly.
The French territory had an administration based on that of the other territories of French Equatorial Africa. Greater agricultural development took place in French Cameroun. Limited industrial and infrastructural growth also occurred, largely after World War II.
Although there were differences in the French and British colonial experiences, there were also strong similarities. Most importantly, these rulers continued drawing Cameroon into the international economic system.
By the time of independence, the trusts produced raw materials for European industries but were dependent on Europe, and especially France, for finished goods. This fragile economy would long continue to plague Cameroon.
British Cameroons and French Cameroun Moving toward independence
After World War II, developments in Cameroon and Europe brought about independence. In French Cameroun, the major question was the type and intensity of the relationship with France after independence.
The first nationalist party, the Cameroon People’s Union (Union des Populations Camerounaises; UPC), led by Felix-Roland Moumie and Reuben Um Nyobe, demanded a thorough break with France and the establishment of a socialist economy. French officials suppressed the UPC, leading to a bitter civil war, while encouraging alternative political leaders.
On January 1, 1960, independence was granted. In elections held soon after independence, Ahmadou Ahidjo was elected the first president of the Republic of Cameroon. Ahidjo and his party, the Cameroon Union (Union Camerounaise), pledged to build a capitalist economy and to maintain close ties to France.
In British Cameroons the major question was whether to remain with Nigeria or to unite with the newly independent Republic of Cameroon. In a UN-supervised plebiscite in February 1961, the south decided to unite with the former French Cameroun, creating the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The north voted to join the Federation of Nigeria.
Ahidjo presidency (1960–82)
Ahidjo ruled from independence until 1982. He centralized political power in himself and in the capital, Yaoundé. Cameroon became an authoritarian, single-party state (under the Cameroon National Union [Union Nationale Camerounaise; UNC], formed in the mid-1960s by the merger of a number of parties) in which civil rights meant little. Ahidjo declared nation building to be a major goal, using the fear of ethnic conflict to justify authoritarianism.
Ahidjo’s policy of planned liberalism was formulated to encourage private investment, with government to play a strong role in guiding development. Expansion of export crops was to provide the foreign capital needed. The 1973 announcement of the Green Revolution proposed that the country was to become self-sufficient in food and to become the primary food source for its neighbours.
The discovery of exploitable petroleum in the 1970s was of great benefit to the economy, and petroleum swiftly became Cameroon’s most valuable export. Petroleum revenues were used to increase prices to farmers, to pay for imports of materials and technology, and to build financial reserves. Unfortunately, petroleum income also paid for a number of costly and poorly planned projects.
Large-scale industrial development projects met with little success, and much capital was lost. Although there was more success in assisting the growth of agribusinesses and small and medium-sized enterprises producing goods for local use, the country still largely depended on imported industrial goods.
Exceptions to this were refined petroleum products, cement, textiles and clothing, beverages, and aluminum. Expansion of transportation facilities, the development of hydroelectric capability, and tremendous growth in education took place.
Cameroon under Biya
On November 4, 1982, Ahidjo resigned and was succeeded by Prime Minister Paul Biya under the constitution; however, Ahidjo remained head of the UNC, the sole political party. Despite Ahidjo’s resignation, he still had expectations of retaining control over the government—intentions that did not sit well with Biya. A confrontation soon followed when Ahidjo tried to assert party domination over the government.
The bid was unsuccessful, however, and in August 1983 Ahidjo was forced to resign as head of the party. A minor coup attempt and a subsequent uprising by the Republican Guard on April 6, 1984—perhaps favoured or directed by Ahidjo or his supporters—followed. Biya emerged unscathed, while Ahidjo, who had taken refuge in France, was tried and sentenced in absentia for his role in the plot.
What remained of Ahidjo’s UNC was soon restyled as Biya’s Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement (CPDM; Rassemblement Démocratique du Peuple Camerounaise [RDPC]).
Consolidation and challenge
At first Biya had sought the development of a more democratic society. Competitive elections for party offices and the National Assembly were permitted, even though the country was still a single-party state. The conflict with Ahidjo and the 1984 coup attempt, however, brought back some of the restrictions of the Ahidjo era.
As the sole candidate for the country’s only legal political party, Biya won uncontested presidential elections in both 1984 and 1988. In the 1990s Biya resisted both domestic and international pressure to democratize. Although he supported legislation in late 1990 that provided for a change to a multiparty political system, he employed a variety of tactics to ensure the status of the CPDM as the dominant party.
At the same time, calls for democracy were also increasing in the English-speaking part of the country. There, many citizens claiming oppression by the French-speaking majority made demands for a return to a federal system, while extremists called for Anglophone independence and threatened violence if their demands were not met. Tensions between the Anglophone community and the Biya administration continued into the 2000s.
In addition to political strife, Biya also had to deal with growing economic troubles. He had inherited a country poised on the brink of severe economic crisis; although the crisis had taken root during Ahidjo’s tenure, it did not surface until after his resignation. Cameroon’s economy, extremely dependent on such exports as cocoa, coffee, and oil, was adversely affected by decreases in the prices of these commodities during the 1980s. In addition, poor economic management had long plagued the country.
Cameroonians placed the blame on Biya, and by the late 1980s opposition to the government had grown. In 1987 Biya admitted that the country faced an economic crisis, and the necessity of an International Monetary Fund structural adjustment program and budget cuts was recognized. The realization that Cameroon had not been able to change the dependent nature of its economy, regardless of the economic progress made since independence, was the cause of much frustration.
Despite the subsequent efforts made toward economic reform, conditions in Cameroon were less than ideal, and corruption was rampant. By the 1990s the country was in severe recession. Numerous jobs had been lost, many workers had received salary cuts, and education and health care funding had been reduced.
Discontent with the government—manifested in part by periodic demonstrations and strikes to protest the country’s economic policies—was extremely high. Cameroon did benefit from debt relief by international creditors, particularly in 2006, when the majority of the country’s sizable debt to the Paris Club, a group of creditor countries, was canceled.
Meanwhile, tensions from a long-standing border dispute with Nigeria over the oil-rich Bakassi Peninsula came to a head in late 1993 and early 1994 when Nigerian troops advanced into the region. New skirmishes occurred in early 1996, and, although a truce was signed, sporadic fighting continued for the next few years.
After eight years of investigation and deliberation, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) awarded the peninsula to Cameroon in October 2002. Nigeria and Cameroon entered into two years of mediation and discussion to facilitate the implementation of the ICJ ruling, reaching an agreement to transfer sovereignty of the peninsula in September 2004.
Despite these measures, Nigeria did not meet the deadline, citing technical problems with preparing for the transfer. In August 2006 the handover of the Bakassi Peninsula from Nigeria to Cameroon was largely completed.
Although the transfer was not without its problems—including the dissatisfaction of many peninsula residents who would have preferred to retain their Nigerian identity—the region enjoyed relative peace until November 2007, when Cameroonian troops stationed in the peninsula were killed by assailants who were reportedly wearing Nigerian military uniforms.
Nigeria quickly declared that its military was not involved and cited recent criminal activity in the Niger Delta region, where military supplies—including uniforms—were stolen. A ceremony held on August 14, 2008, marked the completion of the peninsula’s transfer from Nigeria to Cameroon.
Despite the array of challenges facing him, Biya’s rule was extended with his victories in multiparty elections held in 1992, 1997, and 2004 (the presidential term had been extended, first to five and then to seven years)—all marred by irregularities, although the 2004 election experienced fewer problems than the others and was generally viewed as free and fair.
In April 2008 the National Assembly passed a controversial constitutional amendment abolishing presidential term limits, thereby providing Biya with the option to run again in the future, which he did in 2011. The October 9, 2011, election, like previous ones, was marred by complaints of irregularities.
Before the results were even released, opposition groups had filed several suits asking the Supreme Court to annul the election; the court dismissed the suits. When the results were released on October 21, they indicated that Biya had won another term, with more than 77 percent of the vote.
Biya’s grip on power was further solidified in April 2013 with the long-delayed creation of a 100-member Senate that had been provided for under the 1996 revision to the constitution. Biya’s CPDM party won 56 of the 70 elected seats; together with the 30 seats that were filled by presidential appointment, the new chamber seemed firmly in step with Biya.
The March 2018 Senate elections netted the CPDM an even greater majority, with the ruling party taking 63 seats. Meanwhile, National Assembly elections, due to having been held in 2012, finally took place in September 2013. The CPDM party again won a majority of seats, although fewer seats than in the previous election. Mark W. DeLanceyThe Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
By early 2013, Cameroon had been drawn into neighbouring Nigeria’s ongoing conflict with the Boko Haram Islamic militant group, which had begun making incursions over the border and hitting Cameroon with attacks and kidnapping.
Cameroon’s military had limited success against the group and in 2015 joined with troops of other nearby countries to form a multinational force, approved by the African Union, to enhance the coordination of efforts to combat and eradicate Boko Haram from the region.
Although progress was made, it was tempered by allegations in 2016 that Cameroon’s troops had committed widespread human rights violations in their efforts against the group.
Also in 2016, the long-simmering tensions in the country’s two English-speaking regions in the southwest began to boil over in October when the Anglophone community there staged a series of strikes and demonstrations, protesting against marginalization by the Francophone central government.
The government responded to the protests initially with repressive measures and then later with conciliatory gestures that addressed some of the grievances, but it was not enough to quell the unrest. Many of the regions’ residents called for a return to the federal model of government that existed after independence, one in which they felt power between the Anglophone and Francophone populations was more equitably shared; others called for actual secession from Cameroon.
Meanwhile, skirmishes erupted between government troops and separatists in the region and increased in frequency after October 1, 2017, when some separatist leaders symbolically declared independence for the two English-speaking regions, calling the new state Ambazonia. As the fighting continued, there were allegations of excessive actions having been committed by both sides.
There were also concerns that the October 2018 presidential election—in which Biya would be running for a seventh term—would not be able to be held in the Anglophone regions because of the unrest, which had left the area riddled with security problems and had displaced more than 270,000 people.
The election was held—albeit with an extremely low turnout in the Anglophone regions and a low turnout overall—on October 7, 2018. In addition to the considerable insecurity in the Anglophone regions that served to disenfranchise the electorate there, incidents of voter intimidation and fraudulent activity were reported.
Opposition parties filed challenges to the election, which had to be submitted before the results were announced, but they were all dismissed by the country’s Constitutional Council. When the results were reported some two weeks after the election, Biya was announced the w